推動英語為第二官方語言─挑戰與契機Challenges and Opportunities

2017-06-27

Challenges and Opportunities

Preparing Tainan City to Adopt English as the Second Official Language

Mayor William Lai established the Office of English as the Second Official Language (OEASOL) in March 2015.  In order to promote the new policy, he also established a promotional committee that drew concerned professional leaders from all sectors: business, medical, manufacturing, technology, etc.  The goals set out for the office were twofold: to ameliorate the English language environment within the city and to increase English proficiency levels among Tainan citizens.  The heart of both these goals lies in the educational system.

 

        Adopting English as the second official language of Taiwan has lately gained traction among citizens and attracted attention from foreign media.  In reference to Tainan’s latest push to incorporate bilingual teaching methods into the public school system, Singaporean newspaper The Straits Times reported on June 10th, “Under the Tainan plan, children will get more exposure to English…Other cities, such as Taoyuan, Hsinchu and even Taipei , are introducing English-medium instruction in more subjects, but on a smaller scale.”  According to a recent online poll, 1,333 out of 1,794 respondents supported the adoption of English as the second official language.  One poll participant commented, “It’s a necessary path to take if we want to remain internationally competitive.”  Many who voted against qualified their vote expressing the sentiment that the government should adopt new measures to ensure Taiwan does not fall behind in English proficiency levels, but do not advocate for English as an official language. 

 

        OEASOL’s first course of action was to develop a ten-year timeline that included mechanisms to improve both proficiency and environment.  We also drafted specific short-term, mid-term and long-term goals for various sectors, then set about putting in place the mechanisms to achieve these goals.  For example, expectations were set that all civil servants would be able to pass the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT), or equivalent, within ten years.  In order to achieve this goal, OEASOL coordinated with the Secretariat to post English signage and make English announcements inside government buildings, thus imbuing the environment with more English oral language and print.  To raise proficiency levels, OEASOL provided English speaking classes and collaborated with the Personnel Department to bring English presentation competitions for city employees.

 

        The focus on environment and proficiency revolves around oral language.  To address the lack of English documents and other print information made available to the public by the municipality, OEASOL provided other government entities with a list of top quality translators.  Government documents were divided into eight distinct categories.  OEASOL then set quotas, percentages of each category that other agencies would be required to translate at each stage.  OEASOL also requires that each agency have a staff member capable of reviewing translated documents in order to ensure excellence.  Examples of documents requiring translation are the Municipal Administrative meeting minutes and the mayor’s policy addresses to the City Council.  Informational services to be translated include the city’s LINE group, “I’m in Tainan” Facebook fan page and information concerning international events.

 

        OEASOL then turned its attention to the linguistic environment of the city.  The English Friendly Emblems program aims to make services and cultural experiences available to English speakers.  Offering free translation and design services to sectors like public transportation, hospitality and retail, markets and pharmacies allow English speakers to navigate the city, participate in the economy and purchase medicines more freely; activities which formerly proved forbiddingly difficult for many who cannot read or speak Chinese.  Historic sites and temples also participated; allowing OEASOL representatives to inspect and assess linguistic needs, then meet those needs with English language signs, pamphlets, websites and apps.  This empowers English speakers to absorb Tainan’s rich cultural heritage on a much deeper level, bridges the culture gap and promotes mutual understanding and respect.

 

        Building an English-friendly environment within the city has a dual purpose: it allows English speakers to navigate a foreign society, but also serves to build a sense of urgency within the native population.  Tainan City Office of English as the Second Official Language Chief Consultant Chris Caputo stated, “Tainan has employed traditionalist methodologies in English instruction largely because of the system of high-stakes exams in place for English learners.  Teachers dutifully prepare students for the exams by stressing grammatical constructs, spelling and other written components of the language.  This is in direct contrast to the natural process of language acquisition, which starts with listening, followed by speech, leaving reading and writing skills until later.”  He went on to say that English, partly because of the way it is taught and assessed, partly because of the lack of English outside school, has been reduced to “nothing beyond a school subject,” noting that many Taiwanese English learners feel English is “boring and difficult.  Students struggle with endless drills, but see no opportunity for application of what they have learned outside their English classroom.”  His office asserts that, with an English-friendly environment permeating their city, students will find new motivation to apply what they learn in school.

 

        Bringing the global marketplace closer to home for Tainan residents is only part of the educational reform necessary to make English the second official language.  OEASOL has also drafted Bilingual Education Frameworks that allow public elementary schools to begin delivering some lessons in English.  OEASOL drafted the Frameworks carefully so as not to sacrifice Taiwanese, Hakka or other mother tongue lessons.  Coupled with other reforms that include the adoption of new teaching techniques and methods, changes to teacher recruitment protocols and additional language training for both current and prospective teachers, bilingual lessons will expose students to the four linguistic skills in the proper order, broaden their exposure to subject-specific vocabulary and give context to rare grammatical forms.

 

Mayor Lai has stated that the EASOL policy is like penetrating a rock with dripping water: progress will be slow and painstaking without readily evident results for some time.  English levels in Tainan lagged behind, drawing Taiwan down as other Asian nations surpassed us in English proficiency.  Bold, decisive action was necessary to break old patterns and forge a new linguistic future for Tainan.  Critics have wrongly assumed that the adoption of a second official language spoken only by a minority of the city’s population is folly, but the EASOL policy has served as the basis for aggressive reforms that will mold the school-aged citizens of Tainan into Chinese/English bilinguals, allowing them to learn from, collaborate and share with other global citizens.  As the next generation’s reinvests its new bilingualism back into their community, they will lead Tainan onto the world stage.

民國106年3月,臺南市長賴清德宣布將英語訂為臺南市第二官方語言,並召集臺南市政府第二官方語言推動委員會,聘請來自產學官界各領域菁英擔任推動委員。第二官方語言辦公室成立主要宗旨有兩大方向:打造優質城市英語環境和提升市民英語力,而兩者成功關鍵皆仰賴教育體制的革新。

近來將英語訂為臺灣第二官方語言的議題引起大眾及外媒關注,例如新加坡媒體海峽時報(The Straits Times)於6月10日報導臺南市將雙語教學引進公立小學,並提及「臺南市的雙語教育政策將能讓學童接觸到更多英語……包括桃園、新竹,甚至臺北等縣市也正計劃以英語教授其他科目,但施行規模較小。」根據最新網路民調顯示,1794位填答網友中,有1333位支持將英語列為臺灣第二官方語言,其中一位支持者表示,若要保有國際競爭力,推動二官語是必行之路。反對者則透過投票表示,政府當局應該採取行動以防止臺灣英語力落後其他國家,但不應將英語列為官方語言。

二官語行動計劃執行之初,首先針對提升英語力及英語環境,以十年為期,針對不同細項建立短中長程目標,並規劃具體實施方案,如十年內市府職員能全數通過全民英檢初級或同等程度之語言測驗。為達成目標,二官辦與臺南市政府秘書處合作,在市府內張貼英語標示並製作英語廣播,利用口語英語及英語標示營造市府英語環境。為提升市府職員英語能力,二官辦偕同人事處舉辦英語聊天室課程及市府職員英語簡報比賽。

前述英語環境建置及口說能力提升,測重口語部分,另為提供臺南市官方英語文件及紙本資料給民眾,二官辦也建立優良譯者資料庫以因應府內翻譯需求,並將市府各局處文件統整分為八大類、訂定各類文件雙語化目標。除此之外,為更進一步確保翻譯品質,二官辦也訂定各局處辦公室複審人員機制。舉凡臺南市市政會議紀錄、市長議會口頭施政報告、市府Line群組、「我在臺南」臉書粉絲專頁,及年度重大國際活動皆為重點翻譯管考目標。

接著,我們將注意力轉移到雙語環境的建置上。從英語友善標章計畫開始,我們期望外國朋友也能享受到府城在地的公共服務和文化體驗。透過免費提供翻譯及標示設計服務給公共運輸、醫療藥事、店家、市場等業者,外籍人士暢遊府城、參與經濟活動、購買成藥都變得更加容易;這些從前外籍朋友因為語言問題較難參與的活動,現在都開始提供英語服務了。另外,包括古蹟和寺廟也都參與了我們的英語友善標章活動,我們先確認這些單位的需求,接著評估應該提供的語言資源,最後著手將告示牌、解說牌、手冊、網站和APP進行雙語化,讓外國朋友們能夠更進一步體驗古都深厚的文化底蘊,促進不同文化間的理解與尊重。

建立英語有善環境的目的有二,我們期望在協助來到異鄉的外籍人士探索臺南的同時,也能提升本地市民的危機意識。臺南市政府第二官方語言辦公室總顧問Chris Caputo表示,「在高度考試取向的教育體制下,臺南市長期以來皆採用傳統英語教學方式,教師為了幫助學生面對考試,盡責教文法、拼字等屬於「寫」的層次的技巧。這明顯和語言習得的自然順序背道而馳 – 先聽而後說,最後才是讀和寫。Caputo也表示,因為現行的教學和評量方式問題,加上校園以外的地方較少能接觸到英語刺激,英語其實只被當成一門「科目」來學習,臺灣的英語學習者也抱怨學英語「非常無聊,而且很難。」學生們必須焦頭爛額面對無止進的考試,卻苦無課堂外實際應用語言的機會。二官辦認為,若能讓臺南成為英語友善環境的城市,學生將會有新的動機,願意應用課堂中學到的語言知識。

將全球市場帶進臺南只是推動二官語政策下,教育改革的一部分,二官辦擬定了「臺南市雙語教育計畫架構」,在公立小學推動以英語為其他科目的教學語言,訂定架構時,二官辦也特別審慎,避免犧牲台語、客語等及其他母語課程。此外,多項革新計劃也正在執行,例如新式教學法的引進、教師甄試規則的變革、在職教師及新任教師的培訓課程,我們相信在這些改變的引領下,雙語教育課程能讓學生依照正確的順序發展聽說讀寫四項技能、熟悉專業學科的字彙,甚至在學習較艱深的文法概念時,也有實際環境能夠參照、運用。

臺南市長賴清德表示,「推動英語作為臺南市的第二官方語言,是一種滴水工程,不像硬體建設可以在一定期程內看到成果。」臺南市的英語力亟需加強,唯有果敢決斷的行動,才能突破窠臼,為臺南市帶來新的語言風貌。批評者認為第二官方語言只有少數人會使用,不切實際,其實並不然。臺南市第二官方語言政策將為學子們打下雙語基礎,在未來能和來自世界各地的地球村公民一同學習、合作、分享,並且將雙語生活的模式帶回自己的社區,引領臺南走向國際舞台。