臺南市雙語教學工作坊 外師分享實務經驗Tainan City Holds CLIL Teacher Training Workshops

2018-03-01

臺南市積極推動國小「雙語教學試辦計畫」,臺南市政府第二官方語言辦公室(以下簡稱二官辦)邀請國立成功大學協辦「學科內容與語言整合學習(CLIL)教學精進工作坊」(Content and Language Integrated Learning, 即以英語教授其他科目),本次工作坊分三期,共有來自81所國中小教師踴躍參加,甚至有高雄市及雲林縣的國小教師慕名前來。工作坊內容結合理論與實務,除了學者專家的專業分享,亦邀請正在執行CLIL教學的試辦學校,包含外籍教師、校長以及主任分享實務經驗,期望實踐108新課綱之課程精神,以及推廣CLIL教學理念。

    二官辦表示,本次工作坊授課團隊陣容堅強,包含任教於成功大學及高雄師範大學四位英語教學領域教授,另邀請臺南市安平區西門實驗國小呂翠鈴校長、東區勝利國小黃郁雯教務主任、以及實際參與CLIL試辦計畫之本籍和外籍教師進行示範分享。透過教學分享,參與教師有機會了解不同類型的CLIL教學場域、學生實際需求。教師可依據學生英語程度、學科知能,妥善規劃課程,幫助學生創造「使用英語」的教學環境。而英語教師與各個領域教師之間,更可共同建立合作教學的機制和平台。

    每期三天共18小時課程結合理論與實務,教師不但可獲得CLIL教學的知識和操作概念,也與其他領域教師共同備課,觀摩其他小組的教學。主辦單位獲得參與教師同意後,將各小組撰寫的教案以及示範教學影片上傳至「臺南市國中小英語授課及CLIL計畫教師社群」臉書專頁,以作為後續推廣之資料。

    東區勝利國小外師Emily與學員分享如何鼓勵學生開口說英文。她透過有趣的照片、師生互動問答,引導學生開口說英語。「一學期下來,學生都知道,上Emily老師的課就是要開口說英文。」她說。而中高年級學生,則可運用開放性問題引導學生做推論和預測,進而培養高階思考及溝通能力。

    和順國小外師Ben則分享如何運用跨語言實踐 (translanguaging)引導學生進行學科領域的學習。Ben表示,學英語不能壓力太大,除了英語,他亦鼓勵學生運用圖畫、肢體動作等進行溝通表達。他以自行設計的一年級綜合課「個人衛生」為例,學習單以英文為主,但也結合國字和注音符號,不但幫助一年級學生理解內容,也鼓勵小朋友盡情發想、參與同儕互動。「透過活潑的教學方式,學生能盡情發揮,達到學習的目的,不再反覆進行無趣的制式練習,而是學會思辨及解決問題、進行真實有效的溝通。」Ben說。

    參與工作坊的文賢國小英語教師陳聖其表示,此次最大的收穫是知道如何做CLIL課程評鑑,「看了外師的示範教學,知道原來CLIL不是以語言為主,而是以學科內容為主。」他表示,對英語教師而言,CLIL課程最大的挑戰,是英語教師缺乏其他領域科目的知識,因此在課程設計上,會導向語言教學設計,「所以我們需要這樣的工作坊,讓英語教師知道如何和領域教師合作,整合教學模式」。

    新光國小教導主任林于櫻本身也是英語教師,參與工作坊後,林主任認為如要進行CLIL教學,最重要的是「找到有共同目標的人,人的問題若能克服,並不會太困難。」她表示,進行CLIL教學,從備課、上課、議課都需透過許多合作,「在在考驗人之間的互動」。

    二官辦表示,不同於一般的工作坊,此次學員須分組進行教學示範,除了同儕回饋之外,每位講評者皆依自己的專長,提供理論及實務的建議。在三天中發展出的各領域教案,包括數學、自然、藝術、音樂、健康、體育、綜合等,對未來推廣雙語教學相當有助益。

    多位參與教師表示,透過小組任務,能深刻體會到跨學科合作的重要性,共同備課和共同教學是CLIL教學的成功關鍵。教師們經過密集的理論學習及教學分享,不僅對CLIL教學法產生濃厚的興趣,也躍躍欲試,迫不及待將所學的知識應用於實際教學上。

    成大團隊表示,學員的共同心聲是能夠建置CLIL教學平台,分享教案及教學活動上網,進一步出版CLIL教學資源書及教材,而此類師資培訓活動亦能定期辦理,為臺南市有志於CLIL教學的教師增能。

Tainan City has been actively conducting its bilingual education projects. The Office of English as the Second Official Language (OEASOL) cooperated with National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) to hold a teacher-training workshop specifically designed for bettering the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program. The workshop will be held in three sectors with the participation of teachers from 81 primary schools and secondary schools, some of whom are from Kaohsiung City and Yunlin County. The workshop incorporates theories and practices, inviting experts and representatives, who include foreign instructors, principals and directors, from schools that have installed CLIL to share their professional experience implementing the program. The aim of the workshop is to promote the philosophy of CLIL and fulfill the objectives of the new curriculum that will be introduced in 2019.

The OEASOL expressed that it is pleased to have a team of instructors at the workshop who are established scholars in the field, including four professors who are teaching English-related subjects in NCKU and National Kaohsiung Normal University, the principal of Tainan Municipal Simen Experimental Elementary School, Ms. Allison Lu, the academic director of Shengli Elementary School, Ms. Juliet Huang, and teachers who have had experience teaching with the CLIL model. Participants of the workshop are expected to develop a deeper understanding of the different environments in which CLIL is taught, as well as students’ needs, through actual demonstrations of the lessons. Teachers could plan their lessons in accordance with students’ proficiency in English and their ability in absorbing knowledge from other subjects, thereby prompting students to use English more comfortably. English teachers are also encouraged to cooperate with instructors of other academic subjects to create different platforms for a joined curriculum.

Each sector of the workshop lasts three days, during which participants, grouped, learn to use the teaching methods applied specifically in CLIL, simultaneously attempting to design lectures that model on other teams’ teaching. With the approval of participants, the organizer would then upload their proposals and demonstration videos to the official Facebook fanpage of the English-teaching and CLIL community in Tainan for future reference and promotion.

Emily Jensen, a foreign lecturer at Shengli Elementary School, as well as her students, shared their experience on what motivated students to take the first step in actually speaking English in class. Jensen stated that she had taken different approaches: she shared with her class intriguing photos and asked questions that would prompt her students to respond in English. “Having been doing this for a semester, students have established an assumption that taking Emily’s class means speaking English,” she added. Students from upper grades, on the other hand, use English in open-ended questions that not only sharpen their logical reasoning but also the ability to think independently and communicate efficiently.

Translanguaging, which refers to the process whereby multilingual speakers utilize their languages as an integrated communication system, is also a big theme in cross-subject education. Ben Clevenger, a foreign instructor in Heshun Elementary School, indicates that learning English should be stress-free; he encouraged students to express themselves with illustrations and gestures. He suggested “Personal Hygiene,” a specialized lesson that he designed himself, as an example: most of the handouts in this class are written in English, which are occasionally annotated with Chinese explanations. In doing so, Clevenger hoped that first-graders could fully understand the content whilst filling the blanks with their imaginations and through interactions with peers. “An interactive way of teaching not only allows students to demonstrate their abilities but also innovates the traditionally systematic practices that prevent students from thinking critically, solving problems creatively, and communicating effectively.”

Chen Sheng-chi, a participant of the workshop and an English teacher at Wunsian Elementary School, expressed that his greatest reward from the experience was knowing how to evaluate CLIL lessons. “Having seen the demonstration, I realized that CLIL focuses more on the content of the subject rather than the linguistic parts,” he stated. Chen also points out that currently, the biggest challenge to CLIL is instructors’ lack of knowledge of other academic subjects, which hinders their ability to design classes that provide content beyond English-learning itself. “This is why we need workshops like this. English teachers need to know how to work with other instructors to synthesize their lessons.”

Lin Yu-ying, the academic director at Singuang Elementary School and an English teacher herself, realized that it is important to “find someone who shares the same goal” if CLIL is to be conducted. Lin emphasized that cooperation is the core of CLIL, where designing, discussing, and giving lectures all require skillful interactions between individuals.

OEASOL stresses that, unlike the other workshops, participants in the CLIL workshop are grouped together and asked to give constructive feedback to others with their professional knowledge. They are expected to draft proposals that will further bilingual education in all subject areas, including mathematics, science, arts, music, PE, and integrated activities. Several teachers said that they have developed curiosity and interest in CLIL and look forward to applying what they have learned to their teaching.

The NCKU team expressed that its members are eager to build a CLIL platform where people can share their lesson plans and activities, as well as publishing CLIL-specific materials. More are expecting workshops like such to be held on a regular basis in the future in order to recruit more teachers in Tainan who are willing to join CLIL.