音譯、圖片加註解 二官辦翻譯力求兼顧在地文化與全球化Culture not lost in translation: OEASOL endeavors to portray Tainan City in two languages

2018-07-20

    為推動英語為第二官方語言,臺南市政府積極營造雙語環境,協助外籍人士瞭解臺南在地文化特色。但翻譯往往見人見智,遇到翻譯上有疑義時,市府二官辦偏向採納英語為母語人士之意見,針對台灣文化特有的事物、英語沒有直接對應的詞彙者,或者是英語原有的詞彙表達不出中文的意思者,採取音譯,加上圖片、英文註解的方式,讓外國人有機會學習一些臺語/中文,更加瞭解臺灣在地文化特色。力求兼顧在地文化與全球化。

    二官辦表示,臺南寺廟宗教文化饒具在地庶民生活特色,因此翻譯時特別慎重,逐一與外籍顧問討論、審核,最後採取外籍顧問的見解,以音譯呈現,避免中西文化差異而造成誤解。二官辦外籍前顧問Chris康軒睿說,臺南寺廟宗教物品對外國人而言,雖然陌生卻能引起外國人高度興趣。例如聖杯、陰杯等以音譯Shing-bwei、Yin-bwei呈現,並同時附註圖片及英文解說,既可以讓外國人學到最道地臺灣筊杯念法,又能了解每種筊杯的涵意,是兩全其美的作法。美籍譯者林莉也表示,聖杯、笑杯、陰杯,也可以直接了當的翻成 Yes, smile, and no, 但既然廟宇跟台灣的文化息息相關,加上台語音譯又何嘗不可?讓外國人有機會學習一些台語/中文字彙並更加了解台灣文化。

    林莉進一步說明,日本拉麵英文為Ramen,英文裡面沒有這個字,但外國人一聽就知道是「日本特有」,而naan一聽就是「印度的特色」。音譯另一個作用是讓外籍人士認識「這是一個當地文化特有的東西,別的語言、別的語言沒有對等的用法」。林莉也強調,廟宇既然與臺灣文化息息相關,透過解說牌讓外國人學習道地說法,何嘗不可?這正符合臺南市政府推動英語為第二官方語言之初衷,即是「以英文為共通語言,在雙方能理解的情境下,讓獨特的臺南傳統文化能夠被外籍人士看見,營造一個富有人文氣息的國際城市!」

    而針對該採取音譯或意譯,二官辦也特別詢問孤獨星球(Lonely Planet)的外籍編輯Joshua Samuel及ICRT主播Robert Dawson,他們皆表示音譯加上英文解說完全沒有問題。Joshua甚至保證,從未來到過寺廟的美國阿嬤,也能理解解說牌內容。他們也指出,看到台南近年來積極推動城市行銷,逐步營造的英語友善環境讓外國人「有感」,身為外國人的他們相當認同。

    二官辦表示,臺南推出英語友善寺廟,的確受到外界相當大的關注,正因為是一個相當創新的計畫,對於翻譯、解說,更是戰戰兢兢,所有英文內容皆由外籍顧問審核把關。有鑒於外籍人士對於寺廟文化的高度興趣,二官辦近期也將推出寺廟、古蹟英語線上導覽服務,繼續將臺南的寺廟、文化發揚光大!

As a department that is created to promote English as the second official language of Tainan City, the Tainan City Office of English as the Second Official Language (OEASOL) has strived to cultivate an English-speaking environment that minimizes the language barriers for foreigners to explore the local culture. There does not exist, however, a set of unified approaches to translation; OEASOL has always been careful on this matter and consulting with native English speakers in regards to the comprehensible ways of expressing the culture-specific elements of Tainan. For words that do not have a literal equivalent in English, OEASOL has adopted mostly transliterations -- where the original expression is used and annotated with pictures and detailed explanations in English -- to interpret them. Not only does this allow foreign visitors to learn certain phrases in Taiwanese Hokkien or Mandarin but also the unique features of the native culture are highlighted, simultaneously achieving the goals of globalization and preservation of traditional culture.

 

OEASOL indicates that the temple culture in Tainan reflects the lifestyle of the local community and hence requires a more comprehensive approach in translating, which is often carried out with the assistance of and advice from foreign consultants whose mother language is English. The “borrowing” technique of transliteration, according to them, best delivers the original meaning of words and prevents misinterpretation. Chris Caputo, the former consultant of OEASOL, stated that the temple culture in Tainan is strange yet something that arouses one’s curiosity in the eyes of foreigners. When explaining the prayer rituals in English, the symbolic meanings of the different patterns in which the fortune-telling blocks (often pronounced as “bwei” in Taiwanese Hokkien) land on the floor are best expressed in their native language form, “shing-bwei” (a positive result) and “yin-bwei” (a negative result), and with pictures and English annotations. American translator, Li Lin, also argued that though “shing-bwei” and “yin-bwei” could be directly translated as a simple “yes” or “no,” the cultural characteristics attached to the terms would be lost in translation if they are expressed like this.

 

Lin further suggested several other examples in which culture-specific words are expressed in their original texts. “Ramen,” for instance, is commonly known as Japanese-style noodles and pronounced as it is; similarly, Indian culture comes to mind without any context when someone mentions “naan.” Translating words in their original phonetic form emphasizes the uniqueness of the native culture and “something that could not be found in other languages.” Lin said. This idea is consistent with the fundamental mission of OEASOL, which is to build a bridge between foreigners and locals through the appropriate usage of an international language.

 

OEASOL has also discussed with Joshua Samuel, an editor at Lonely Planet, a company dedicated to creating travel guides for various cities in the world, and Robert Dawson, an anchor at International Community Radio Taipei, in regards with the right way to transliterate or translate literally. Both agreed that expressing Taiwanese terms in their original form is perfectly plausible. Samuel stated that even American elders who had never visited temples have been able to understand the usage of divination blocks with the right instructions. They also praised the effort that Tainan City Government has made in shaping the city as a globalized environment, saying they have felt welcome as foreigners living in Tainan.

OEASOL expressed that the English-Friendly Temple project operated by Tainan City Government is a relatively creative program that has received much attention, prompting the office to be more careful in translating and interpreting the phrases in English. OEASOL affirms that all the content is supervised by foreign consultants who are native English speakers. Having seen an increasing interest in local temple culture among foreign visitors, OEASOL is preparing to create online tour guides for temples and historic sites in Tainan in an attempt to introduce the local culture to a greater audience.